Understanding Web Literacy within the Web Journey

Laura de Reynal


Since 2012, pioneering educators and web activists have been reflecting and developing answers to the question, “What is web literacy?”

These conversations have shaped our Web Literacy Map, a guiding document that outlines the skills and competencies that are essential to reading, writing, and participating on the Web.

Just the other week, we wrapped up improvements to the Web Literacy Map, proudly unveiling version 1.5. Thank you to all who contributed to that discussion, and to Doug Belshaw for facilitating it.

We believe being web literate is not just knowing how to code in HTML, CSS, and Javascript. These are great tools, but they’re only one aspect of being a Web creator and citizen. Therefore, the updated Web Literacy Map includes competencies like privacy, remixing, and collaboration.

As we design and test offerings to foster web literacy, we are also determining how these skills fit into a larger web journey. Prompted by user research in Bangladesh, India, Kenya, and beyond, we’re asking: What skill levels and attitudes encourage people to learn more about web literacy? And how can one wield the Web after learning its fundamentals?

Mozilla believes this is an important question to reflect on in the open. With this blog post, we’d like to start a series of discussions, and warmly invite you to think this through with us.

What is the Web Journey ?

As we talked to 356 people in four different countries (India, Bangladesh, Kenya, and Brazil) over the past six months, we learned how people perceive and use the Web in their daily lives. Our research teams identified common patterns, and we gathered them into one framework called “The Web Journey.”

The Web Journey

    This framework outlines five stages of engagement with the Web:

  • Unaware: Have never heard of the Web, and have no idea what it is (for example, these smartphone owners in Bangladesh)
  • No use: Are aware of the existence of the Web, but do not use it, either by rejection (“the Web is not for me, women don’t go online”), Inability (“I can’t afford data”), or perceived inability (“The Web is only for businessmen”)
  • Basic use: Are online, and are stuck in the “social media bubble,” unaware of what else is possible (Internet = Facebook). These users have little understanding of the Web, and don’t leverage its full range of possibilities
  • Leverage: Are able to seize the opportunities the Web has to offer to improve their quality of life (to find jobs, to learn, or to grow their business)
  • Creation: From the tinkerer to the web developer, creators understand how to build the Web and are able to make it their own

Internet = Facebook

You can read the full details of the Web Journey, with constraints and triggers, in the Webmaker Field Research Report from India.

Why do the Web Literacy Map and the Web Journey fit together?

While the Web Literacy Map explores the skills needed, the Web Journey describes various stages of engagement with the Web. It appears certain skills may be more necessary for some stages of the Web Journey. For example: Is there a list of skills that people need to acquire to move from “Basic use” to “Leverage”?

As we continue to research digital literacy in Chicago and London (April – May 2015), we’ll seek to understand how to couple skills listed in the Web Literacy Map with steps of engagement outlined in the Web Journey. Bridging the two can help us empower Mozilla Clubs all around the world.

What are the discussion questions ?

To kick off the conversation, consider the following:

  1. Literacy isn’t an on/off state. It’s more a continuum, and there are many learning pathways. How can this nuance be illustrated and made more intuitive?
  2. How can we leverage the personal motivators highlighted along the Web Journey to propose interest-driven learning pathways?
  3. Millions of people think Facebook is the Internet. How can the Web Literacy Map be a guide for these learners to know more and do more with the Web?
  4. As web literacy skills and competencies increase throughout a learner’s journey, and as people participate in web cultures, particular attitudes emerge and evolve. What are those nuances of web culture? How might we determine a “fluency” in the Web?
  5. How does the journey continue after someone has learned the fundamentals of the Web? How can they begin to participate in their community and share that knowledge forward? How can mentorship, and eventually leadership, be a more explicit part of a web journey? How do confidence and ability to teach others become part of the web journey?




Learning Through Making: The Best Kind of Education

Chris Lawrence


Learning scientists and educational philosophers have long understood that when we learn with the combination of our hands and our minds, we see the best results. In the realm of science, this process is called “inquiry” — it encourages curious learners and scientific  researchers alike to interact with the natural world to better understand it. In the social sciences, this hands-on learner approach is through role-play and participating in the real world, exemplified by Model UN student governments. Learners are encouraged to participate in the very organizations they’re learning about.

It’s not a new idea: American philosopher John Dewey was a major advocate of learning-through-doing in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Still, the idea has struggled to gain a substantial foothold in our current systems of teaching and learning.

Digital literacy — the ability to participate and create online — is fast becoming a skill equally as important as reading, writing and arithmetic. Having the know-how to create online can empower individuals around the globe, no matter their geography or traditional educational background. Digital literacy creates unprecedented social and economic opportunities. We have a chance to advance the learning-by-doing approach through the spread of digital literacy.

At Mozilla, we’re dedicated to coupling our digital literacy programs with a “make first” approach that would make John Dewey grin. We don’t think the Web should be taught traditionally, with textbooks and a blackboard. The “sage on the stage” approach is directly oppositional to the distributed and participatory nature of the Web we champion. Instead, learners should start by doing what they eventually intend to master: building apps, remixing content, creating web pages, and more. This “make first” approach has always guided Mozilla’s Learning Networks, a collection of Hives, Clubs, and annual celebrations like Maker Party and MozFest.

Our Hive networks and communities — soon to reach a total of 16 — mix a “make first” philosophy with a deep focus on collaboration. As a result, learners in the U.S., India, Canada, and beyond have created amazing stuff, like apps and tools that can protect the environment, make audio engineering simple, and teach robots to sing. Hive educators and mentors understand that the best teachers empower their students by modeling and fostering creativity. As a result, Hive learners aren’t just taking in information — they’re also creating amazing things.

Our Mozilla Clubs, which will formally launch after this July’s two-week Maker Party, follow the same philosophy. Empowered by an interactive curriculum, Club participants will learn the basics of coding, animation, user privacy, and more. The Clubs’ flexible structure allows “make first,” collaborative learning to take place anytime, anywhere.

This “make first” philosophy also helps to motivate students. When learners reach a frustration point — that is, when a lack of knowledge becomes a blocker to their pursuits — they have an intrinsic motivation to push forward by learning new things. “Make first” allows them to do just this.

Further, a “make first” approach is critical to more than just education — it ensures we’re creating a populace ready for the future. With Mozilla’s Learning Network projects, we can empower entire cohorts of teachers and learners and seed innovation with incredible potential.

We hope you’ll join us in teaching through making. To get involved, share your ideas and projects using the hashtag #TeachTheWeb. You can also tune in to our Teach The Web podcast, or share your story with us.

Webmaker in Q1: What did we do? What’s next?

Matt Thompson


This week, we’re stepping back to do some quarterly reflection. This post includes a slide presentation, analysis and interview with Mozilla’s Andrew Sliwinski on what we’ve achieved so far this year — and a look ahead to our goals and work in Q2. It includes challenges we’re facing, areas where we need your help, and some strategy questions we’d like to get your perspective on. Please add comments to this post — or join the discussion on #webmaker. Continue reading …

A Make-First Approach in Kenya, and Around the World



Gilbert Were Odero is a “Maker.”

For some, that title might require an explanation. For Gilbert, it’s perfectly clear: He creates on the Web, but also serves as an educator and mentor for others. “Making” is a way to actively participate on the Web, to boost web literacy, and to unlock social and economic opportunities.

Earlier this year, Gilbert — a 19-year-old Firefox Student Ambassador and resident of Mombasa, Kenya — launched Mombasa’s MozTour 2015 with fellow Mozillian Alifiya Ganijee. The MozTour visits high schools and universities across southern Kenya, teaching students the power of the open Web using Mozilla’s Webmaker tools. These tools allow users to build simple apps, remix audio and video and learn the basics of coding. The MozTour also spreads the word about their growing Hive Mombasa Learning Community, which brings together local educators and organizations to share digital skills across schools, libraries and community centers.

Photos from MozTour 2015

Photos from MozTour 2015

The MozTour is centered on making. When Gilbert, Alifiya and others visit a school, students are divided into groups of five to 10. Each group is introduced to the Webmaker tool, and then asked to develop a new “make.” Users can create content from scratch or remix an existing make. After one hour, each group presents their invention. The Firefox Student Ambassadors vote on the most creative make, and the winning group is awarded a prize.

“The success story is that many students come up with great ideas and makes,” Gilbert says. “The passion of learning the Web grows from each place we go.”

Gilbert himself has created a range of makes, from interactive postcards to graphic designs.

Already, the MozTour 2015 has visited eight locations: Gilbert and his team have stopped by Sheik Khalifa High School and Aga Khan High School in Mombasa, Ammarcom Institute, Jomo Kenyatta University and several other schools. And they’re still going.

Photos from MozTour 2015

Photos from MozTour 2015

Gilbert and MozTour exemplify Mozilla’s approach to learning: Make First. When students are able to learn the Web by building it, it’s an incredibly rewarding experience. We support our Make First approach across our Learning Networks: From our Hives in Chicago, New York, Pittsburgh and Toronto to our Maker Party events on six continents, participants are encouraged to roll up their sleeves and create. But it doesn’t stop there: Every make can be shared, improved and rebuilt.

Later this year, Mozilla will unveil a new, more powerful Webmaker tool that will allow mobile users around the world to become makers — all that’s required is internet access and a smartphone (it will also be available on desktops). Currently in beta, the Webmaker mobile app will help billions of individuals just now coming online to experience the potential of a truly open, inclusive Web.

The Webmaker tool complements Mozilla’s Learning Network, a collection of digital mentors and educators around the globe that teach the web. The Learning Network is made up of Hives and the annual Maker Party — and soon, Mozilla Clubs. Clubs are inspired by events like MozTour: They bring together makers in an informal setting to create, learn and make the Web a better place. Clubs will roll out later this year.

The Webmaker app — coupled with ambassadors like Gilbert — can empower countless individuals to become makers. And even for teachers, there are always opportunities to make and learn more: “[MozTour] has enable me to understand the Web and improve my skills,” Gilbert says.

How We’re Collecting Great Community Stories

Lucy Harris


When we hear stories about how people are making and learning around the world, it inspires us to be better teachers of the web. Every day we hear from people who are exploring their passion for teaching and making by starting new events, running clubs, and teaching in their communities.

We’re getting better at collecting and sharing these stories, but we need your help! We want you to help document your stories by recording them with this new form.  


Abid Aboobaker – Kerala, India

When we were building this form we thought a lot about what the elements are of a good story. By looking through blogs and share-outs of community members whose stories have inspired us so far, we identified four questions that a good story answers:

  1. Character – Who is the character in this story?
  2. Motivation – What is their motivation?
  3. Action – What happened/what did they do?
  4. Impact – What was the outcome/impact?

Abid Aboobaker is a community member from Kerala India whose blog post about teaching the web inspired us, and is a great example of how these four elements come together to create a compelling story.

On his blog he describes how he started teaching the web after discovering that his father and his father’s friend’s gave their email passwords in writing to the cafe boy at the internet cafes they visited each day. Concerned by their lack of understanding about  privacy he started teaching in his community and visiting engineering students and campuses and encouraging other students to teach.


In his story both Abid and his father are the central characters and we learn about them through the description he gives at the very start of his blog post, and throughout his writing:

“My father is an active volunteer of an educational organisation.  During the early days of his profession, the medium of communication  was postal mails and he and his friends  were happy with it…So, one day my dad approached me for a new email address, and as a  techie, I had to help him. “


Abid’s motivation for starting to teach is the need for education he discovers in his father’s community:

“”[My Dad’s] reply was, “Sign out?! What are you speaking about? And the password  is safe in my pocket, right? Then how can the internet boy access it again? Abid, you are making things too complicated.” At that moment, I realised that like thousands of old generation men and women, my father too has no idea about signing out or cookies! When I  visited the near by Internet cafes, I realised that most of my dad’s  friends as well as many others, follow the same method of giving the  password to the cafe boy.”


The action of Abid’s story is his empowering friends and colleagues to be teachers of the web.

“So, I started teaching the Web to students, teachers, auto-walas,  friends, house wives, relatives etc. When I visited and talked at many  Engineering colleges in Kerala, I found that most of the so-called  engineering students thinks that they do not know anything about  technology and are wasting their time in college. When I asked them, “Do  you know Elon Musk, Richard Stallman, Aaron Swartz? (my super heros!)”,  they looked down and said a quiet NO! Next I asked whether they knew  how to shutdown a computer or open a word document, and the answer was a  louder YES!”


The last element of a good story is about the impact or outcome of the event or initiative on the narrator and/or the community.  For Abid, he sees the results of his teaching in his father, and when he looks at his greater community.

“Now I feel accomplished when I watch my father proudly teaching his  friends how to sign-out their mail or what a mac book pro is! Today,  when I write this note on Engineer’s Day in India, a feeling of  satisfaction and achievement envelopes me as I realise that I could play  a role in changing many lives.”

It is easy to see why Abid’s story inspired us, and why we wanted to find and hear more incredible stories like this one.

We hope you will take a second to record your story in this form and that you will pass the form along to everyone you know who is making and teaching the web. So that together we can find and share even more amazing stories and make an even stronger community of people teaching and sharing the web together.

Building an Academy

Mark Surman


Last December in Portland, I said that Mozilla needs a more ambitious stance on how we teach the web. My argument: the web is at an open vs. closed crossroads, and helping people build know-how and agency is key if we want to take the open path. I began talking about Mozilla needing to do something in ‘learning’ in ways that can have the scale and impact of Firefox if we want this to happen.


The question is: what does this look like? We’ve begun talking about developing a common approach and brand for all our learning efforts: something like Mozilla University or Mozilla Academy. And we have a Mozilla Learning plan in place this year to advance our work on Webmaker products, Mozilla Clubs (aka Maker Party all year round), and other key building blocks. But we still don’t have a crisp and concrete vision for what all this might add up to. The idea of a global university or academy begins to get us there.

My task this quarter is to take a first cut at this vision — a consolidated approach for Mozilla’s efforts in learning. My plan is to start a set of conversations that get people involved in this process. The first step is to start to document the things we already know. That’s what this post is.

What’s the opportunity?

First off, why are we even having this conversation? Here’s what we said in the Mozilla Learning three-year plan:

Within 10 years there will be five billion citizens of the web. Mozilla wants all of these people to know what the web can do. What’s possible. We want them to have the agency, tools and know-how they need to unlock the full power of the web. We want them to use the web to make their lives better. We want them to be full citizens of the web.

We wrote this paragraph right before Portland. I’d be interested to hear what people think about it a few months on?

What do we want to build?

The thing is even if we agree that we want everyone to know what the web can do, we may not yet agree on how we get there. My first cut at what we need to build is this:

By 2017, we want to build a Mozilla Academy: a global classroom and lab for the citizens of the web. Part community, part academy, people come to Mozilla to unlock the power of the web for themselves, their organizations and the world.

This language is more opinionated than what’s in the Mozilla Learning plan: it states we want a global classroom and lab. And it suggests a name.

Andrew Sliwinski has pointed out to me that this presupposes we want to engage primarily with people who want to learn. And, that we might move toward our goals in other ways, including using our product and marketing to help people ‘just figure the right things out’ as they use the web. I’d like to see us debate these two paths (and others) as we try to define what it is we need to build. By the way, we also need to debate the name — Mozilla Academy? Mozilla University? Something else?

What do we want people to know?

We’re fairly solid on this part: we want people to know that the web is a platform that belongs to all of us and that we can all use to do nearly anything.

We’ve spent three years developing Mozilla’s web literacy map to describe exactly what we mean by this. It breaks down ‘what we want people know’ into three broad categories:

  • Exploring the web safely and effectively
  • Building things on the web that matter to you and others
  • Participating on the web as a critical, collaborative human

Helping people gain this know-how is partly about practical skills: understanding enough of the technology and mechanics of the web so they can do what they want to do (see below). But it is also about helping people understand that the web is based on a set of values — like sharing information and human expression — that are worth fighting for.

How do we think people learn these things?

Over the last few years, Mozilla and our broader network  of partners have been working on what we might call ‘open source learning’ (my term) or ‘creative learning’ (Mitch Resnick’s term, which is probably better :)). The first principles of this approach include:

  • Learn by making things
  • Make real shit that matters
  • Do it with other people (or at least with others nearby)

There is another element though that should be manifested in our approach to learning, which is something like ‘care about good’ or even ‘care about excellence’ — the idea that people have a sense of what to aspire to and feedback loops that help them know if they are getting there. This is important both for motivation and for actually having the impact on ‘what people know’ that we’re aiming for.

My strong feeling is that this approach needs to be at the heart of all Mozilla’s learning work. It is key to what makes us different than most people who want to teach about the web — and will be key to success in terms of impact and scale. Michelle Thorne did a good post on how we embrace these principles today at Mozilla. We still need to have a conversation about how we apply this approach to everything we do as part of our broader learning effort.

How much do we want people  to know?

Ever since we started talking about learning five years ago, people have asked: are you saying that everyone on the planet should be a web developer? The answer is clearly ‘no’. Different people need — and want — to understand the web at different levels. I think of it like this:

  • Literacy: use the web and create basic things
  • Skill: know how that gets you a better job / makes your life better
  • Craft: expert knowledge that you hone over a lifetime

There is also a piece that includes  ‘leadership’ — a commitment and skill level that has you teaching, helping, guiding or inspiring others. This is a fuzzier piece, but very important and something we will explore more deeply as we develop a Mozilla Academy.

We want a way to engage with people at all of these levels. The good news is that we have the seeds of an approach for each. SmartOn is an experiment by our engagement teams to provide mass scale web literacy in product and using marketing. Mozilla Clubs, Maker Party and our Webmaker Apps offer deeper web literacy and basic skills. MDN and others are think about teaching web developer skills and craft. Our fellowships do the same, although use a lab method rather than teaching. What we need now is a common approach and brand like Mozilla Academy that connects all of these activities and speaks to a variety of audiences.

What do we have?

It’s really worth making this point again: we already have much of what we need to build an ambitious learning offering. Some of the things we have or are building include:

We also have an increasingly good reputation among people who care about and  fund learning, education and empowerment programs. Partners like MacArthur Foundation, UNESCO, the National Writing Project and governments in a bunch of countries. Many of these organizations want to work with us to build — and be a part of — a more ambitious approach teaching people about the web.

What other things are we thinking about?

In addition to the things we have in hand, people across our community are also talking about a whole range of ideas that could fit into something like a Mozilla Academy. Things I’ve heard people talking about include:

  • Basic web literacy for mass market (SmartOn)
  • Web literacy marketing campaigns with operators
  • Making and learning tools in Firefox (MakerFox)
  • MDN developer conference
  • Curriculum combining MDN + Firefox Dev Edition
  • Developer education program based on Seneca model
  • A network of Mozilla alumni who mentor and coach
  • Ways to help people get jobs based on what they’ve learned
  • Ways to help people make money based on what they’ve learned
  • Ways for people to make money teaching and mentoring with Mozilla
  • People teaching in Mozilla spaces on a regular basis
  • Advanced leadership training for our community
  • Full set of badges and credentials

Almost all of these ideas are at a nascent stage. And many of them are extensions or versions of the things we’re already doing, but with an open source learning angle. Nonetheless, the very fact that these conversations are actively happening makes me believe that we have the creativity and ambition we need to build something like a Mozilla Academy.

Who is going to do all this?

There is a set of questions that starts with ‘who is the Mozilla Academy?’ Is it all people who are flag waving, t-shirt donning Mozillians? Or is it a broader group of people loosely connected under the Mozilla banner but doing their own thing?

If you look at the current collection of people working with Mozilla on learning, it’s both. Last year, we had nearly 10,000 contributors working with us on some aspect of this ‘classroom and lab’ concept. Some of these people are Mozilla Reps, Firefox Student Ambassadors and others heavily identified as Mozillians. Others are teachers, librarians, parents, journalists, scientists, activists and others who are inspired by what we’re doing and want to work alongside us. It’s a big tent.

My sense is that this is the same sort of mix we need if we want to grow: we will want a core set of dedicated Mozilla people and a broader set of people working with us in a common way for a common cause. We’ll need a way to connect (and count) all these people: our tools, skills framework and credentials might help. But we don’t need them all to act or do things in exactly the same way. In fact, diversity is likely key to growing the level of scale and impact we want.

Snapping it all together

As I said at the top of this post, we need to boil all this down and snap it into a crisp vision for what Mozilla — and others — will build in the coming years.

My (emerging) plan is to start this with a series of blog posts and online conversations that delve deeper into the topics above. I’m hoping that it won’t just be me blogging — this will work best if others can also riff on what they think are the key questions and opportunities. We did this process as we were defining Webmaker, and it worked well. You can see my summary of that process here.

In addition, I’m going to convene a number of informal roundtables with people who might want to participate and help us build Mozilla Academy. Some of these will happen opportunistically at events like eLearning Africa in Addis and the Open Education Global conference in Banff that are happening over the next couple of months. Others will happen in Mozilla Spaces or in the offices of partner orgs. I’ll write up a facilitation script so other people can organize their own conversations, as well. This will work best if there is a lot of conversation going on.

In addition to blogging, I plan to report out on progress at the Mozilla All-Hands work week in Whistler this June. By then, my hope is that we have a crisp vision that people can debate and get involved in building out. From there, I expect we can start figuring out how to build some of the pieces we’ll need to pull this whole idea together in 2016. If all goes well, we can use MozFest 2015 as a bit of a barn raising to prototype and share out some of these pieces.

Process-wise, we’ll use the Mozilla Learning wiki to track all this. If you write something or are doing an event, post it there. And, if you post in response to my posts, please put a link to the original post so I see the ping back. Twittering #mozacademy is also a good thing to do, at least until we get a different  name.

Join me in building Mozilla Academy. It’s going to be fun. And important.

What we’re working on now

Matt Thompson


What we’re working on this Heartbeat

(March 30 to April 10)

  • Soft launching the new teach.mozilla.org site (including our new log-in system)
  • New “tiles” feature. Creating a unified Webmaker experience across devices (as per these mockups for desktop and mobile).
  • Getting ready to announce the new Open Web Fellows (including: updating the Advocacy site)

But wait there’s more!

Web Literacy Map v1.5

Doug Belshaw


Changes in competencies from v1.1 to v1.5 of Mozilla’s Web Literacy Map

Last week the Mozilla community finished work on updating the Web Literacy Map to v1.5. This will underpin the upcoming teach.webmaker.org sub-section of Webmaker.

We made some small modifications to competencies from Web Literacy Map v1.1 (see graphic above). However, the major work was in clarifying the skills underpinning each competency. The full list can be found below:


Reading the Web


Using software tools to browse the web

  • Accessing the web using the common features of a browser
  • Using hyperlinks to access a range of resources on the web
  • Reading, evaluating, and manipulating URLs
  • Recognizing the common visual cues in web services
  • Exploring browser add-ons and extensions to provide additional functionality

Web Mechanics

Understanding the web ecosystem and Internet stack

  • Using and understanding the differences between URLs, IP addresses and search terms
  • Identifying where data is in the network of devices that makes up the Internet
  • Exporting, moving, and backing up data from web services
  • Explaining the role algorithms play in creating and managing content on the web
  • Creating or modifying an algorithm to serve content from around the web


Locating information, people and resources via the web

  • Developing questions to aid a search
  • Using and revising keywords to make web searches more efficient
  • Evaluating search results to determine if the information is relevant
  • Finding real-time or time-sensitive information using a range of search techniques
  • Discovering information and resources by asking people within social networks


Critically evaluating information found on the web

  • Comparing and contrasting information from a number of sources
  • Making judgments based on technical and design characteristics
  • Discriminating between ‘original’ and derivative web content
  • Identifying and investigating the author or publisher of web resources
  • Evaluating how purpose and perspectives shape web resources


Keeping systems, identities, and content safe

  • Recommending how to avoid online scams and ‘phishing’
  • Managing and maintaining account security
  • Encrypting data and communications using software and add-ons
  • Changing the default behavior of websites, add-ons and extensions to make web browsing more secure


Writing the web

Composing for the web

Creating and curating content for the web

  • Inserting hyperlinks into a web page
  • Identifying and using HTML tags
  • Embedding multimedia content into a web page
  • Creating web resources in ways appropriate to the medium/genre
  • Setting up and controlling a space to publish on the Web


Modifying existing web resources to create something new

  • Identifying remixable content
  • Combining multimedia resources to create something new on the web
  • Shifting context and meaning by creating derivative content
  • Citing and referencing original content

Designing for the web

Enhancing visual aesthetics and user experiences

  • Using CSS properties to change the style and layout of a Web page
  • Demonstrating the difference between inline, embedded and external CSS
  • Improving user experiences through feedback and iteration
  • Creating device-agnostic web resources

Coding / Scripting

Creating interactive experiences on the web

  • Reading and explaining the structure of code
  • Identifying and applying common coding patterns and concepts
  • Adding comments to code for clarification and attribution
  • Applying a script framework
  • Querying a web service using an API


Communicating in a universally-recognisable way

  • Using empathy and awareness to inform the design of web content that is accessible to all users
  • Designing for different cultures which may have different interpretations of design elements
  • Comparing and exploring how different interfaces impact diverse users
  • Improving the accessibility of a web page through the design of its color scheme, structure/hierarchy and markup
  • Comparing and contrasting how different interfaces impact diverse web users


Participating on the web


Providing access to web resources

  • Creating and using a system to distribute web resources to others
  • Contributing and finding content for the benefit of others
  • Creating, curating, and circulating web resources to elicit peer feedback
  • Understanding the needs of audiences in order to make relevant contributions to a community
  • Identifying when it is safe to contribute content in a variety of situations on the web


Creating web resources with others

  • Choosing a Web tool to use for a particular contribution/ collaboration
  • Co-creating Web resources
  • Configuring notifications to keep up-to-date with community spaces and interactions
  • Working towards a shared goal using synchronous and asynchronous tools
  • Developing and communicating a set of shared expectations and outcomes

Community Participation

Getting involved in web communities and understanding their practices

  • Engaging in web communities at varying levels of activity
  • Respecting community norms when expressing opinions in web discussions
  • Making sense of different terminology used within online communities
  • Participating in both synchronous and asynchronous discussions


Examining the consequences of sharing data online

  • Debating privacy as a value and right in a networked world
  • Explaining ways in which unsolicited third parties can track users across the web
  • Controlling (meta)data shared with online services
  • Identifying rights retained and removed through user agreements
  • Managing and shaping online identities

Open Practices

Helping to keep the web democratic and universally accessible

  • Distinguishing between open and closed licensing
  • Making web resources available under an open license
  • Contributing to an Open Source project
  • Advocating for an open web